Environment Protection Act, 1986

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Environment Protection Act,1986
Environment Protection Act,1986

Environment Protection Act, 1986 (EPA) or The Environment Act was enacted by the Government of India under Article 253 of the Indian Constitution. The Act came in as a result of the Bhopal gas tragedy as well as India’s commitment to follow United Nations Conference on the Human Environment that took place at Stockholm in June, 1972. 

The term Environment include water, air land and the interrelationship between water , air , land and human being, other living creatures, micro organism, plants.

Objective of Wild Life Protection Act

The main objective of The Environment Protection Act, 1986 provide for the protection and improvement of environment and for matters connected therewith.

Salient features of Wild Life Protection Act

1. The Central Government have power to make rules and regulations for the protection and improvements of environment. And also controlling the environmental pollution. 

2. No person or company have power to carry on a business or operation which cross the limits of environment pollution. The person or company need a permit that he will not cross the limits of pollution , to carry on his business.

3. If anyone​ or a company break the rule. So he have to takes the all responsibility of the effects of Environmental​ pollution. And he also punished by government.

4. The central government or a officer hired by it, have power to take analysis or research of pollution of water , air and land which the person or company is suffering.

5. Whoever fails to obey the rules of Environment Act 1986 have been punished or taked fine from the central government or a officer hired by it.

6. The Act consists of –

(a) 26 Sections divided into 4 chapters.

Chapter 1 – Secs. 1 and 2 (PRELIMINARY)

Chapter 2 – Secs. 3 to 6 (GENERAL POWERS OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT)

Chapter 3 – Secs. 7 to 17 (PREVENTION, CONTROL, AND ABATEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION)

Chapter 4 – Secs. 18 to 26 (MISCELLANEOUS)

(b) Seven Schedules dealing with emission standards of air, noise, effluents etc. have been appended to the Act.

(c) Various Rules Including Environment (Protection) Rules have been framed under the Act

Environment Protection Act, 1986
Chapter 1- Preliminary

Environment Protection Act 1986 provides :

1. Short title, extent and commencement
2. Definitions (It defines the environment related terminology)

Chapter 2- General Power of the Central Government

Environment Protection Act 1986 provides :

3. Power of Central Government to take measures to protect and improve environment

4. Appointment of officers and their powers and functions.

5. Power to give directions.

6. Rules to regulate environmental pollution.

Chapter 3- Prevention, Control and Abatement of Environmental Pollution

7. Persons carrying on industry, operation, etc., not to allow emission or discharge of environmental pollutants in excess of the standards.

8. Persons handling hazardous substances to comply with procedural safeguards.

9. Furnishing of information to authorities and agencies in certain cases. 

10. Powers of entry and inspection.

11. Power to take sample and procedure to be followed in connection therewith.

12. Environmental laboratories.

13. Government Analysts.

14. Reports of Government Analysts.

15. Penalty for contravention of the provisions of the Act and the rules, orders and directions.

16. Offences by companies.

17. Offences by Government Departments.

Chapter 4- Miscellaneous

18. Protection of action taken in good faith.

19.  Cognizance of offences.

20. Information, reports or returns.

21. Members, officers and employees of the authority constituted under section 3 to be public servants. 

22. Bar of jurisdiction.

23. Power to delegate.

24. Effect of other laws.

25. Power to make rules.

26. Rules made under this Act to be laid before Parliament.

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