Important Articles of The Constitution Of India

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The Constitution of India
The Constitution of India
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The Constitution of India (Bhartiya Samvidhaan) has 448 articles in 25 parts and 12 schedules and 5 appendices. It is Longest Constitution in the world. The Constitution of India was written under drafting committee chaired by B.R. Ambedkar.

Constitution day which is also known as the Samvidhan Divas is celebrated every year on November 26 to mark the day on which the Constitution of India was adopted. While the adoption of the Constitution took place on November 26, 1949, it came into effect on January 26, 1950.

List of Important Articles in the Constituion of India

Part 1 (Article 1-4) – The Union and Its territories

Article 1- Name and territory of the union.

  1. India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States
  2. The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule
  3. The territory of India shall comprise

Article 2 – Admission and Establishment of the new state.

Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions, as it thinks fit

Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and the name of existing states.

  1. form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;
  2. increase the area of any State;
  3. diminish the area of any State;
  4. alter the boundaries of any State;
  5. alter the name of any State; Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundaries or name of any of the States, the Bill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of that State for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired Explanation I In this article, in clauses (a) to (e), State includes a Union territory, but in the proviso, State does not include a Union territory Explanation II The power conferred on Parliament by clause (a) includes the power to form a new State or Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union territory to any other State or Union territory
Part 2 (Article 5-11) – Citizenship

Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.

At the commencement of this Constitution every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and

  1. who was born in the territory of India; or
  2. either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or
  3. who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India

Article 6- Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan.

Notwithstanding anything in Article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if

  1. he or either of his parents or any of his grandparents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and
  2. (i) in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948 , he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or
  3. (ii) in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948 , he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government: Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India or at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application

Article 10- Continuance of rights of citizenship.

Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen

Article 11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship

Part 3 (Article 12-35) – Fundamental Rights

Article 12- Definition

Definition In this part, unless the context otherwise requires, the State includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India

Article 13- Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

  1. All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void
  2. The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void
  3. In this article, unless the context otherwise requires law includes any Ordinance, order, bye law, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usages having in the territory of India the force of law; laws in force includes laws passed or made by Legislature or other competent authority in the territory of India before the commencement of this Constitution and not previously repealed, notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereof may not be then in operation either at all or in particular areas
  4. Nothing in this article shall apply to any amendment of this Constitution made under Article 368 Right of Equality
Part 3.1 (Article 14-18) – Equality

Article 14- Equality before the law.

The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth

Article 15- Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth.

  1. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them
  2. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to
    1. access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and palaces of public entertainment; or
    2. the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public
  3. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children
  4. Nothing in this article or in clause ( 2 ) of Article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes

Article 16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.

  1. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State
  2. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect or, any employment or office under the State
  3. Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to residence within that State or Union territory prior to such employment or appointment
  4. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State
  5. Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs of any religious or denominational institution or any member of the governing body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or belonging to a particular denomination

Article 17- Abolition of the untouchability.

Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden The enforcement of any disability arising out of Untouchability shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law

Article 18- Abolition of titles

No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State No person who is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office of profit or trust under the State, accept without the consent of the President any title from any foreign State No person holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the consent of the President, accept any present, emolument, or office of any kind from or under any foreign State Right to Freedom

Part 3.2 (Article 19-22) – Right to Freedom

Article 19- Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc

  1. All citizens shall have the right
    1. to freedom of speech and expression;
    2. to assemble peaceably and without arms;
    3. to form associations or unions;
    4. to move freely throughout the territory of India;
    5. to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and
    6. omitted
    7. to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business
  2. Nothing in sub clause (a) of clause ( 1 ) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence
  3. Nothing in sub clause (b) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause
  4. Nothing in sub clause (c) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order or morality, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause
  5. Nothing in sub clauses (d) and (e) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of any of the rights conferred by the said sub clauses either in the interests of the general public or for the protection of the interests of any Scheduled Tribe
  6. Nothing in sub clause (g) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the general public, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause, and, in particular, nothing in the said sub clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it relates to, or prevent the State from making any law relating to,
    1. the professional or technical qualifications necessary for practising any profession or carrying on any occupation, trade or business, or
    2. the carrying on by the State, or by a corporation owned or controlled by the State, of any trade, business, industry or service, whether to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens or otherwise

Article 20- Protection in respect of conviction for offences.

  1. No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of the law in force at the time of the commission of the act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence
  2. No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once
  3. No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself

Article 21- Protection of life and personal liberty.

No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law

Part 3.3 (Article 23-24) – Right against Exploitation

Article 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.

  1. Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law
  2. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purpose, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them

Article 24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc

No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment Provided that nothing in this sub clause shall authorise the detention of any person beyond the maximum period prescribed by any law made by Parliament under sub clause (b) of clause ( 7 ); or such person is detained in accordance with the provisions of any law made by Parliament under sub clauses (a) and (b) of clause ( 7 )

Part 3.4 (Article 25-28) – Right to Freedom of Religion

Article 25- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.

  1. Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion
  2. Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any law
    1. regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice;
    2. providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus Explanation I The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion Explanation II In sub clause (b) of clause reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion, and the reference to Hindu religious institutions shall be construed accordingly

Article 26- Freedom to manage religious affairs.

Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right

  1. to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes;
  2. to manage its own affairs in matters of religion;
  3. to own and acquire movable and immovable property; and
  4. to administer such property in accordance with law

Article 27- Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.

No person shall be compelled to pay any taxes, the proceeds of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religions denomination

Article 28- Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

  1. No religion instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds
  2. Nothing in clause ( 1 ) shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution
  3. No person attending any educational institution recognised by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto Cultural and Educational Rights
Part 3.5 (Article 29-30) – Cultural and Educational Rights

Article 29- Protection of interest of minorities.

  1. Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same
  2. No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them

Article 30-   Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

  1. All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice
    1. In making any law providing for the compulsory acquisition of any property of an educational institution established and administered by a minority, referred to in clause ( 1 ), the State shall ensure that the amount fixed by or determined under such law for the acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict or abrogate the right guaranteed under that clause
  2. The state shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or language
Part 3.6 (Article 32-35) – Right to Constitutional Remedies

Article 32- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

  1. The right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed
  2. The Supreme Court shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part
  3. Without prejudice to the powers conferred on the Supreme Court by clause ( 1 ) and ( 2 ), Parliament may by law empower any other court to exercise within the local limits of its jurisdiction all or any of the powers exercisable by the Supreme Court under clause ( 2 )
  4. The right guaranteed by this article shall not be suspended except as otherwise provided for by this Constitution
Part 4 (Article 36-51) – Directive principle of State Policy

Article 36- Definition

In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the State has the same meaning as in Part III

Article 37- Application of DPSP

Application of the principles contained in this Part The provisions contained in this Part shall not be enforceable by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws

Article 39- Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State:

The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing

  1. that the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means to livelihood;
  2.  that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good;
  3.  that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment;
  4.  that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women;
  5. that the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength;
  6. that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment

Article 40- Organisation of village panchayat

The State shall take steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self government

Article 41- Right to work, to education, and to public assistance in certain cases

The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want

Article 43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.

The State shall endeavour to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or co operative basis in rural areas

Article 43A- Participation of workers in management of industries.

The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry.

Article 44- Uniform civil code.

The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.

Article 45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.

The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years

Article 46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections

The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation

Article 47- Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.

The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health

Article 48- Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.

The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle

Article 48A- Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life

The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country expand

Article 49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.

It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interests, declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance, from spoliation, disfigurement, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be

Article 50- Separation of judiciary from the executive.

The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State

Article 51- Promotion of international peace and security.

The State shall endeavour to

  1. promote international peace and security;
  2. maintain just and honourable relations between nations;
  3. foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with one another; and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration PART IVA FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES
Part 4A (Article 51A) – Fundamental Duties

Article 51A Fundamental duties

It shall be the duty of every citizen of India 

  1. to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national Flag and the National Anthem;
  2. to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
  3. to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  4. to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
  5. to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  6. to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  7. to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
  8. to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
  9. to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
  10. to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement PART V THE UNION CHAPTER I THE EXECUTIVE The President and Vice President
Part 5 (Article 52-151) – The Union

Article 52- The President of India

There shall be a President of India

Article 53- Executive Power of the union.

  1. The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution
  2. Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the supreme command of the Defence Forces of the Union shall be vested in the President and the exercise thereof shall be regulated by law
  3. Nothing in this article shall
    1. be deemed to transfer to the President any functions conferred by any existing law on the Government of any State or other authority; or
    2. prevent Parliament from conferring by law functions on authorities other than the President

Article 54- Election of President

The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament; and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States

Article 61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.

  1. When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by either House of Parliament
  2. No such charge shall be preferred unless
    1. the proposal to prefer such charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after at least fourteen days notice in writing signed by not less than one fourth of the total number of members of the House has been given of their intention to move the resolution, and
    2. such resolution has been passed by a majority of not less than two thirds of the total membership of the House
  3. When a charge has been so preferred by either House of Parliament, the other House shall investigate the charge or cause the charge to be investigated and the President shall have the right to appear and to be represented as such investigation
  4. If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or cause to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed

Article 63- The Vice-president of India.

There shall be a Vice President of India

Article 64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman the Council of States.

The Vice President shall be ex officio chairman of the counsel of States and shall not hold any other office of profit: Provided that during any period when the Vice President acts as President or discharges the functions of the President under Article 65, he shall not perform the duties of the office of chairman of the council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable to the chairman of the council of States under Article 97

Article 66- Election of Vice-president.

  1. The Vice President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot
  2. The Vice President shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State, and if a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State be elected Vice President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that House on the date on which he enters upon his office as Vice President
  3. No person shall be eligible for election as Vice President unless he
    1. is a citizen of India;
    2. has completed the age of thirty five years;
    3. is qualified for election as a member of the Council of States
  4. A person shall not be eligible for election as Vice President if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments Explanation For the purposes of this article, a person shall not be deemed to hold any office of profit by reason only that he is the President or Vice President of the Union or the Governor of any State or is a Minister either for the Union or for any State

Article 72- Power of President to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

  1. The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence
    1. in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a court Martial;
    2. in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends;
    3. in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death
  2. Noting in sub clause (a) of Clause ( 1 ) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a State under any law for the time being in force

Article 74- Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President.

  1. There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice: Provided that the President may require the council of Ministers to reconsider such advice, either generally or otherwise, and the President shall act in accordance with the advice tendered after such reconsideration
  2. The question whether any, and if so what, advice was tendered by Ministers to the President shall not be inquired into in any court

Article 76- Attorney-General for India.

  1. The President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney General for India
  2. it shall be the duty of the Attorney General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force
  3. In the performance of his duties the Attorney General shall have right of audience in all courts in the territory of India
  4. The Attorney General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall receive such remuneration as the President may determine Conduct of Government Business

Article 79- Constitution of Parliament

There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and the House of the People

Article 80- Composition of Council of States (Rajya Sabha).

  1. The Council of States shall consist of
    1. twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause ( 3 ); and
    2. not more than two hundred and thirty eight representatives of the States and of the Union territories
  2. The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the States and of the Union territories shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf contained in the fourth Schedule
  3. The members to be nominated by the President under sub clause (a) of clause ( 1 ) shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following, namely: Literature, science, art and social service
  4. The representatives of each State in the Council of States shall be elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote
  5. The representatives of the Union Territories in the Council of States shall be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe

Article 81- Composition of House of the People Lok Sabha.

  1. Subject to the provisions of Article 331 the House of the People shall consist of
    1. not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and
    2. not more than twenty members to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide
  2. For the purposes of sub clause (a) of clause ( 1 ) 
    1.  there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and
    2. each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State: Provided that the provisions of sub clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions
  3. In this article, the expression population means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2000 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census

Article 83- Duration of Houses of Parliament.

  1. The Council of States shall not be subject to dissolution, but as nearly as possible one third of the members thereof shall retire as soon as may be on the expiration of every second year in accordance with the provisions made in that behalf by Parliament by law
  2. The House of the People, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a dissolution of the House: Provided that the said period may, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year as a time and not extending in any case beyond a period of six months after s the Proclamation has ceased to operate

Article 93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people.

The House of the People shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the House to be respectively Speaker and Deputy Speaker thereof and, so often as the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the House shall choose another member to be Speaker or Deputy Speaker, as the case may be

Article 105- Powers, Privileges, etc of the House of Parliament.

Powers, privileges, etc of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof

  1. Subject to the provisions of this constitution and the rules and standing orders regulating the procedure of Parliament, there shall be freedom of speech in Parliament
  2. No member of Parliament shall be liable to any proceedings in any court in respect of anything said or any vote given by him in Parliament or any committee thereof, and no person shall be so liable in respect of the publication by or under the authority of either House of Parliament of any report, paper, votes or proceedings
  3. In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of each House of Parliament, and of the members and the committees of each House, shall be such as may from time to time be defined by Parliament by law, and, until so defined shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the coming into force of Section 15 of the Constitution (Forty fourth Amendment) Act 1978
  4. The provisions of clauses ( 1 ), ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) shall apply in relation to persons who by virtue of this constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, a House of Parliament or any committee thereof as they apply in relation to members of Parliament

Article 109- Special procedure in respect of money bills

  1. A Money Bill shall not be introduced in the Council of States
  2. After a Money Bill has been passed by the House of the People it shall be transmitted to the Council of States for its recommendations and the Council of States shall within a period of fourteen days from the date of its receipt of the Bill return the Bill to the house of the People with its recommendations and the House of the People may thereupon either accept or reject all or any of the recommendations of the Council of States
  3. If the House of the People accepts any of the recommendations of the council of States, the Money Bill shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses with the amendments recommended by the council of States and accepted by the House of the People
  4. If the House of the People does not accept any of the recommendations of the council of States, the Money Bill shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses in the form in which it was passed by the House of the People without any of the amendments recommended by the Council of States
  5. If a Money Bill passed by the House of the People and transmitted to the council of States for its recommendations is not returned to the House of the People within the said period of fourteen days, it shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses at the expiration of the said period in the form in which it was passed by the House of the People

Article 110- Definition of “Money Bills”.

  1. For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely
    1. the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;
    2. the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the Government of India, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the Government of India;
    3. the custody of the consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of India, the payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund;
    4. the appropriation of moneys out of the consolidated Fund of India;
    5. the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure;
    6. the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or the public account of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the Union or of a State; or
    7. any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub clause (a) to (f)
  2. A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes
  3. If any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the House of the People thereon shall be final
  4. There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Council of States under Article 109, and when it is presented to the President for assent under Article 111, the certificate of the Speaker of the House of the People signed by him that it is a Money Bill

Article 112- Annual Financial Statement.

  1. The President shall in respect of every financial year cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Government of India for that year, in this Part referred to as the annual financial statement
  2. The estimates of expenditure embodied in the annual financial statement shall show separately
    1. the sums required to meet expenditure described by the Condition as expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India; and
    2. the sums required to meet other expenditure proposed to be made from the Consolidated Fund of India, and shall distinguish expenditure on revenue account from other expenditure
  3. The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India
    1. the emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to his office;
    2. the salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People;
    3. debt charges for which the Government of India is liable including interest, sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising of loans and the service and redemption of debt;
    4.  
      1. the salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Supreme Court,
      2. the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Federal Court,
      3. the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of any High Court which exercises jurisdiction in relation to any area included in the territory of India or which at any time before the commencement of this Constitution exercises jurisdiction in relation to any area included in a Governors Province of the Dominion of India;
    5. the salary, allowances and pension payable to or in respect of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India;
    6. any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal;
    7. any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by Parliament by law to be so charged

Article 114- Appropriation Bills.

  1. As soon as may be after the grants under article 113 have been made by the House of the People, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of India of all moneys required to meet
    1. the grants so made by the House of the People; and
    2. the expenditure charged on the Consolidated fund of India but not exceeding in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before Parliament
  2. No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in either House of Parliament which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final
  3. Subject to the provisions of articles 115 and 116, no money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India expect under appropriation made by law passed in accordance with the provisions of this article

Article 123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament.

  1. If at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinance as the circumstances appear to him to require
  2. An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament, but every such Ordinance
    1. shall be laid before both House of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassemble of Parliament, or, if before the expiration of that period resolutions disapproving it are passed by both Houses, upon the passing of the second of those resolutions; and
    2. may be withdrawn at any time by the President Explanation Where the Houses of Parliament are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause
  3. If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which Parliament would not under this Constitution be competent to enact, it shall be void CHAPTER IV THE UNION JUDICIARY

Article 124- Establishment and Constituion of Supreme Court.

  1. There shall be a Supreme Court of India constituting of a Chief Justice of India and, until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number, of not more than seven other Judges
  2. Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with such of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose and shall hold office until he attains the age of sixty five years: Provided that in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the chief Justice, the chief Justice of India shall always be consulted:
    1. a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office;
    2. a Judge may be removed rom his office in the manner provided in clause ( 4 )

Article 125- Salaries, etc, of Judges.

  1. There shall be paid to the Judges of the Supreme Court such salaries as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such salaries as are specified in the Second Schedule
  2. Every Judge shall be entitled to such privileges and allowances and to such rights in respect of leave of absence and pension as may from time to time be determined by or under law made by Parliament and, until so determined, to such privileges, allowances and rights as are specified in the Second Schedule: Provided that neither the privileges nor the allowances of a Judge nor his rights in respect of leave of absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment

Article 126- Appointment of acting Chief justice.

When the office of Chief Justice of India is vacant or when the Chief Justice is, by reason or absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of the other Judges of the Court as the President may appoint for the purpose

Article 127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.

  1.  If at any time there should not be a quorum of the Judges of the Supreme Court available to hold or continue any session of the Court, the Chief Justice of India may, with the previous consent of the President and after consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned, request in writing the attendance at the sittings of the Court, as an ad hoc Judge, for such period as may be necessary, of a Judge of a High Court duly qualified for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice of India
  2. It shall be the duty of the Judge who has been so designated, in priority to other duties of his office, to attend the sittings of the Supreme Court at the time and for the period for which his attendance is required, and while so attending he shall have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges, and shall discharge the duties, of a Judge of the Supreme Court

Article 128- Attendance of a retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court.

Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court Notwithstanding anything in this chapter, the Chief Justice of India may at any time, with the previous consent of the president, request any person who has held the office of a Judge of the Supreme Court or of the Federal Court or who has held the office of a Judge of a High Court and is duly qualified for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court to sit and act as a Judge of the Supreme Court, and every such person so requested shall, while so sitting and acting, be entitled to such allowances as the President may by order determine and have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges of, but shall not otherwise be deemed to be, a Judge of that Court: Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as aforesaid to sit and act as a Judge of that Court unless he consents so to do

Article 129- Supreme court to be a court of Record.

The Supreme Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself

Article 130- Seat of the Supreme court.

The Supreme Court shall sit in Delhi or in such other place or places, as the Chief Justice of India may, with the approval of the President, from time to time, appoint

Article 136- Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court.

  1. Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, the Supreme Court may, in its discretion, grant special leave to appeal from any judgment, decree, determination, sentence or order in any cause or matter passed or made by any court or tribunal in the territory of India
  2. Nothing in clause ( 1 ) shall apply to any judgment, determination, sentence or order passed or made by any court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the Armed Forces

Article 137- Review of judgement or orders by the Supreme court.

Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court Subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament or any rules made under Article 145, the Supreme Court shall have power to review any judgment pronounced or order made by it

Article 141- Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.

The law declared by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of India

Article 148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India

  1. There shall be a Comptroller and Auditor General of India who shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal and shall only be removed from office in like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court
  2. Every person appointed to be the Comptroller and Auditor General of India shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule
  3. The salary and other conditions of service of the Comptroller and Auditor General shall be such as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until they are so determined, shall be as specified in the Second Schedule: Provided that neither the salary of a Comptroller and Auditor General nor his rights in respect of leave of absence, pension or age of retirement shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment
  4. The Comptroller and Auditor General shall not be eligible for further office either under the Government of India or under the Government of any State after he has ceased to hold his office
  5. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and of any law made by Parliament, the conditions of service of persons serving in the Indian Audit and Accounts Department and the administrative powers of the Comptroller and Auditor General shall be such as may be prescribed by rules made by the President after consultation with the Comptroller and Auditor General
  6. The Administrative expenses of the office of the Comptroller and Auditor General, including all salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of pensions serving in that office, shall be charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India

Article 149- Duties and Powers of CAG.

Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor General The Comptroller and Auditor General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States and of any other authority or body as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by the Auditor General of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in relation to the accounts of the Dominion of India and of the Provinces respectively

Part 6 (Article 36-237) – The States

Article 153- Governors of State

There shall be Governor for each State: Provided that nothing in this article shall prevent the appointment of the same person as Governor for two or more States

Article 154- Executive Powers of Governor.

  1. The executive power of the State shall be vested in the Governor and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution
  2. Nothing in this article shall
    1. be deemed to transfer to the Governor any functions conferred by any existing law on any other authority; or
    2. prevent Parliament or the Legislature of the State from conferring by law functions on any authority subordinate to the Governor

Article 161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.

Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc, and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases The Governor of a State shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends

Article 165- Advocate-General of the State.

  1. The Governor of each State shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of a High Court to be Advocate General for the State
  2. It shall be the duty of the Advocate General to give advice to the Government of the State upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the Governor, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force
  3. The Advocate General shall hold office during the pleasure of the Governor, and shall receive such remuneration as the Governor may determine Conduct of Government Business

Article 213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances during recess of Legislature.

  1. If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session, the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinance as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate any such Ordinance if
    1. a Bill containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have required the previous sanction of the President for the introduction thereof into the Legislature; or
    2.  he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a Bill containing the same provisions for the consideration of the President; or
    3. an Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have been invalid unless, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, it had received the assent of the President
  2. An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, but every such Ordinance
    1. shall be laid before the legislative Assembly of the State, or where there is a Legislative Council in the State, before both the House, and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature, or if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislative Assembly and agreed to by the Legislative Council, if any, upon the passing of the resolution or, as the case may be, on the resolution being agreed to by the Council; and
    2. may be withdrawn at any time by the Governor Explanation Where the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause
  3. If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, it shall be void: Provided that, for the purposes of the provisions of this Constitution relating to the effect of an Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to an Act of Parliament or an existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance promulgated under this article in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the State which has been reserved for the consideration of the president and assented to by him CHAPTER V THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES

Article 214- High Courts for states.

There shall be a High Court for each State

Article 215- High Courts to be a court of record.

Every High Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself

Article 226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.

  1. Notwithstanding anything in Article 32 every High Court shall have powers, throughout the territories in relation to which it exercise jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases, any Government, within those territories directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibitions, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose
  2. The power conferred by clause ( 1 ) to issue directions, orders or writs to any Government, authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises for the exercise of such power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories
  3. Where any party against whom an interim order, whether by way of injunction or stay or in any other manner, is made on, or in any proceedings relating to, a petition under clause ( 1 ), without
    1. furnishing to such party copies of such petition and all documents in support of the plea for such interim order; and
    2. giving such party an opportunity of being heard, makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order and furnishes a copy of such application to the party in whose favour such order has been made or the counsel of such party, the High Court shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the date on which it is received or from the date on which the copy of such application is so furnished, whichever is later, or where the High Court is closed on the last day of that period, before the expiry of the next day afterwards on which the High Court is open; and if the application is not so disposed of, the interim order shall, on the expiry of that period, or, as the case may be, the expiry of the aid next day, stand vacated
  4. The power conferred on a High Court by this article shall not be in derogation of the power conferred on the Supreme court by clause ( 2 ) of Article 32

Article 233- Appointment of District judges.

  1. Appointments of persons to be, and the posting and promotion of, district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the State in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State
  2. A person not already in the service of the Union or of the State shall only be eligible to be appointed a district judge if he has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader and is recommended by the High Court for appointment

Article 235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts.

The control over district courts and courts subordinate thereto including the posting and promotion of, and the grant of leave to, persons belonging to the judicial service of a State and holding any post inferior to the post of district judge shall be vested in the High Court, but nothing in this article shall be construed as taking away from any such person any right of appeal which he may under the law regulating the conditions of his service or as authorising the High Court to deal with him otherwise than in accordance with the conditions of his service prescribed under such law

Part 7 (Article 238) – Repealed
Part 8 (Article 239-242) – Union Territories

Article 239- Administration of Union territories

  1. Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to be appointed by him with such designation as he may specify
  2. Notwithstanding anything contained in Part VI, the President may appoint the Governor of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory, and where a Governor is so appointed, he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council of Ministers

Article 240- Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories

Article 241- High Courts for Union territories

  1.  Parliament may by law constitute a High Court for a Union territory or declare any court in any such territory to be a High Court for all or any of the purposes of this Constitution
  2. The provisions of Chapter V of Part VI shall apply in relation to every High Court referred to in clause ( 1 ) as they apply in relation to a High Court referred to in Article 214 subject to such modifications or exceptions as Parliament may by law provide
  3. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by or under this Constitution, every High Court exercising jurisdiction immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956 , in relation to any Union territory shall continue to exercise such jurisdiction in relation to that territory after such commencement
  4. Nothing in this article derogates from the power of parliament to extend or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court for a State to, or from, any Union territory or part thereof
Part 9 [Article 243(243A-243O)] – Panchayats

Article 243- Definitions

In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,

  1.  “district” means a district in a State;
  2. “Gram Sabha” means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level;
  3. “intermediate level” means a level between the village and district levels specified by the Governor of a State by public notification to be the intermediate level for the purposes of this Part;
  4. “Panchayat” means an institution (by whatever name called) of self-government constituted under article 243B, for the rural areas;
  5. “Panchayat area” means the territorial area of a Panchayat;
  6. “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published;
  7. “village” means a village specified by the Governor by public notification to be a village for the purposes of this Part and includes a group of villages so specified.

Article 243 A.   Gram Sabha

A Gram Sabha may exercise such powers and perform such functions at the village level as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.

Article 243B. Constitution of Panchayats

  1. There shall be constituted in every State, Panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels in accordance with the provisions of this Part.
  2. Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), Panchayats at the intermediate level may not be constituted in a State having a population not exceeding twenty lakhs.
Part 9A (Article 243P-243ZG) – Muncipalities
Part 9B (Article 243ZH-243ZT) – Co-operative Socities
Part 10 (Article 244-244A) – Scheduled and tribal areas
Part 11 (Article 245-263) – Relations between the union and the states

Article 245- Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States

  1. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India, and the Legislature of a State may make laws for the whole or any part of the State
  2. No law made by Parliament shall be deemed to be invalid on the ground that it would have extra territorial operation

Article-248- Residuary powers of legislation

  1. Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Concurrent List or State List
  2. Such power shall include the power of making any law imposing a tax not mentioned in either of those Lists

Article 249- Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest

  1. Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in national interest that Parliament should make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List specified in the resolution, it shall be lawful for Parliament to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to that matter while the resolution remains in force
  2. A resolution passed under clause ( 1 ) shall remain in force for such period not exceeding one year as may be specified therein: Provided that, if and so often as a resolution approving the continuance in force of any such resolution is passed in the manner provided in clause ( 1 ), such resolution shall continue in force for a further period of one year from the date on which under this clause it would otherwise have ceased to be in force
  3. A law made by Parliament which Parliament would not but for the passing of a resolution under clause ( 1 ) have been competent to make shall, to the extent of the incompetency, cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of six months after the resolution has ceased to be in force, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before the expiration of the said period

Article 262- Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter State rivers or river valleys

  1. Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, any inter State river or river valley
  2. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament may by law provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint as is referred to in clause ( 1 ) Co ordination between States

Article 263- Provisions with respect to an inter State Council

If any any time it appears to the President that the public interests would be served by the establishment of a Council charged with the duty of

  1. inquiring into and advising upon disputes which may have arisen between States;
  2. investigating and discussing subjects in which some or all of the States, or the Union and one or more of the States, have a common interest; or
  3. making recommendations upon any such subject and, in particular, recommendations for the better co ordination of policy and action with respect to that subject, in shall be lawful for the President by order to establish such a Council, and to define the nature of the duties to be performed by it and its organisation and procedure PART XII FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS CHAPTER I FINANCE General
Part 12 (Article 264-300A) – Finance, property, contracts and suits

Article 266- Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund of India and of the States

  1. Subject to the provisions of Article 267 and to the provisions of this Chapter with respect to the assignment of the whole or part of the net proceeds of certain taxes and duties to States, all revenues received by the Government of India, all loans raised by that Government by the issue of treasury bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that Government in repayment of loans shall form one consolidated fund to be entitled the Consolidated Fund of India, and all revenues received by the Government of a State, all loans raised by that Government by the issue of treasury bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that Government in repayment of loans shall form one consolidated fund to be entitled the Consolidated Fund of the State
  2. All other public moneys received by or on behalf of the Government of India or the Government of a State shall be entitled to the public account of India or the public account of the State, as the case may be
  3. No moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India or the Consolidated Fund of a State shall be appropriated except in accordance with law and for the purposes and in the manner provided in this Constitution

Article 267- Contingency Fund of India

  1. Parliament may by law establish a Contingency Fund in the nature of an imprest to be entitled the Contingency Fund of India into which shall be paid from time to time such sums as may be determined by such law, and the said Fund shall be placed at the disposal of the President to enable advances to be made by him out of such Fund for the purposes of meeting unforeseen expenditure pending authorisation of such expenditure by Parliament by law under Article 115 or Article 116
  2. The Legislature of a State may by law establish a Contingency Fund in the nature of an imprest to be entitled the Contingency Fund of the State into which shall be paid from time to time such sums as may be determined by such law, and the said Fund shall be placed at the disposal of the Governor of the State to enable advances to be made by him out of such Fund for the purposes of meeting unforeseen expenditure pending authorisation of such expenditure by the Legislature of the State by law under Article 205 or Article 206 Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States

Article 280- Finance Commission

  1. The President shall, within two years from the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter at the expiration of every fifth year or at such earlier time as the President considers necessary, by order constitute a Finance Commission which shall consist of a Chairman and four other members to be appointed by the President
  2. It shall be the duty of the Commission to make recommendations to the President as to
    1. the distribution between the Union and the States of the net proceeds of taxes which are to be, or may be, divided between them under this Chapter and the allocation between the States of the respective shares of such proceeds;
    2. the principles which should govern the grants in aid of the revenues of the States out of the Consolidated Fund of India;
    3. any other matter referred to the Commission by the President in the interests of sound finance
  3. The Commission shall determine their procedure and shall have such powers in the performance of their functions as Parliament may by law confer on them

Article 300-A- Right to property.

Part 13 (Article 301-307) – Trade and commerce within India

Article 301- Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.

Subject to the other provisions of this Part, trade, commerce and intercourse throughout the territory of India shall be free

Article 302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.

Parliament may by law impose such restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse between one State and another or within any part of the territory of India as may be required in the public interest

Part 14 (Article 308-323) – Services under the union and states

Article 312- All India Service.

  1. Notwithstanding anything in Chapter VI of Part VI or Part XI, if the Council of States has declared by resolution supported by not less than two thirds of the members present and voting that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest so to do, Parliament may by law provide for the creation of one or more all India services (including an all India judicial service) common to the Union and the States, and, subject to the other provisions of this Chapter, regulate the recruitment, and the conditions of service of persons appointed, to any such service
  2. The services known at the commencement of this Constitution as the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service shall be deemed to be services created by Parliament under this article
  3. The all India judicial service referred to in clause ( 1 ) shall not include any post inferior to that of a district judge as defined in article 236
  4. The law providing for the creation of the all India judicial service aforesaid may contain such provisions for the amendment of Chapter VI of Part VI as may be necessary for giving effect to the provisions of that law and no such law shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368

Article 315- Public service commissions for the union and for the states

  1. Subject to the provisions of this article, there shall be a Public Service Commission for the Union and a Public Service Commission for each State.
  2. Two or more States may agree that there shall be one Public Service Commission for that group of States, and if a resolution to that effect is passed by the House or, where there are two Houses, by each House of the Legislature of each of those States, Parliament may by law provide for the appointment of a Joint State Public Service Commission (referred to in this Chapter as Joint Commission) to serve the needs of those States.
  3. Any such law as aforesaid may contain such incidental and consequential provisions as may be necessary or desirable for giving effect to the purposes of the law.
  4. The Public Service Commission for the Union, if requested so to do by the Governor of a State, may, with the approval of the President, agree to serve all or any of the needs of the State.
  5. References in this Constitution to the Union Public Service Commission or a State Public Service Commission shall, unless the context otherwise requires, be construed as references to the Commission serving the needs of the Union or, as the case may be, the State as respects the particular matter in question.

Article 320- Functions of Public Service Commission

  1. It shall be the duty of the Union and the State Public Service Commissions to conduct examinations for appointments to the services of the Union and the services of the State respectively.
  2. It shall also be the duty of the Union Public Service Commission, if requested by any two or more States so to do, to assist those States in framing and operating schemes of joint recruitment for any services for which candidates possessing special qualifications are required.
  3. The Union Public Service Commission or the State Public Service Commission, as the case may be, shall be consulted—
    1. on all matters relating to methods of recruitment to civil services and for civil posts;
    2. on the principles to be followed in making appointments to civil services and posts and in making promotions and transfers from one service to another and on the suitability of candidates for such appointments, promotions or transfers;
    3. on all disciplinary matters affecting a person serving under the Government of India or the Government of a State in a civil capacity, including memorials or petitions relating to such matters;
    4. on any claim by or in respect of a person who is serving or has served under the Government of India or the Government of a State or under the Crown in India or under the Government of an Indian State, in a civil capacity, that any costs incurred by him in defending legal proceedings instituted against him in respect of acts done or purporting to be done in the execution of his duty should be paid out of the Consolidated Fund of India, or, as the case may be, out of the Consolidated Fund of the State;
    5. on any claim for the award of a pension in respect of injuries sustained by a person while serving under the Government of India or the Government of a State or under the Crown in India or under the Government of an Indian State, in a civil capacity, and any question as to the amount of any such award,

and it shall be the duty of a Public Service Commission to advise on any matter so referred to them and on any other matter which the President, or, as the case may be, the Governor of the State, may refer to them:

Provided that the President as respects the all- India services and also as respects other services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union, and the Governor, as respects other services and posts in connection with the affairs of a State, may make regulations specifying the matters in which either generally, or in any particular class of case or in any particular circumstances, it shall not be necessary for a Public Service Commission to be consulted.

  1. Nothing in clause (3) shall require a Public Service Commission to be consulted as respects the manner in which any provision referred to in clause (4) of article 16 may be made or as respects the manner in which effect may be given to the provisions of article 335.
  2. All regulations made under the proviso to clause (3) by the President or the Governor of a State shall be laid for not less than fourteen days before each House of Parliament or the House or each House of the Legislature of the State, as the case may be, as soon as possible after they are made, and shall be subject to such modifications, whether by way of repeal or amendment, as both Houses of Parliament or the House or both Houses of the Legislature of the State may make during the session in which they are so laid.
Part 14A (Article 323A-323B) – Tribunals

Article 323A- Administrative Tribunals

  1. Parliament may, by law, provide for the adjudication or trial by administrative tribunals of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of any State or of any local or other authority within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India or of any corporation owned or controlled by the Government.
  2. A law made under clause (1) may—
    1. provide for the establishment of an administrative tribunal for the Union and a separate administrative tribunal for each State or for two or more States;
    2. specify the jurisdiction, powers (including the power to punish for contempt) and authority which may be exercised by each of the said tribunals;
    3. provide for the procedure (including provisions as to limitation and rules of evidence) to be followed by the said tribunals;
    4. exclude the jurisdiction of all courts, except the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court under article 136, with respect to the disputes or complaints referred to in clause (1);
    5. provide for the transfer to each such administrative tribunal of any cases pending before any court or other authority immediately before the establishment of such tribunal as would have been within the jurisdiction of such tribunal if the causes of action on which such suits or proceedings are based had arisen after such establishment;
    6. repeal or amend any order made by the President under clause (3) of article 371D;
    7. contain such supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions (including provisions as to fees) as Parliament may deem necessary for the effective functioning of, and for the speedy disposal of cases by, and the enforcement of the orders of, such tribunals.
  3. The provisions of this article shall have effect notwithstanding anything in any other provision of this Constitution or in any other law for the time being in force.
Part 15 (Article 324-329) – Elections

Article 324-Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.

Article 325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.

Article 326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage.

Part 16 (Article 330-342) – Special provisions relating to certain classes (SC, ST, OBC, Etc.)

Article 338- National Commission for the SC, & ST.

Article 340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.

Part 17 (Article 343-351) – Languages

Article 343- Official languages of the Union

  1. The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals
  2. Notwithstanding anything in clause ( 1 ), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the English language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the president may, during the said period, by order authorise the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union
  3. Notwithstanding anything in this article, Parliament may by law provide for the use, after the said period of fifteen years, of
    1. the English language, or
    2. the Devanagari form of numerals, for such purposes as may be specified in the law

Article 345- Official languages or languages of states.

Official language or languages of a State Subject to the provisions of Article 346 and 347, the Legislature of a State may by law adopt any one or more of the languages in use in the State or Hindi as the language or languages to be used for all or any of the official purposes of that State: Provided that, until the Legislature of the State otherwise provides by law, the English language shall continue to be used for those official purposes within the State for which it was being used immediately before the commencement of this Constitution


Article 348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts.

  1. Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, until Parliament by law otherwise provides
    1. all proceedings in the Supreme Court and in every High Court,
    2. the authoritative texts
      1. of all Bills to be introduced or amendments thereto to be moved in either House of Parliament or in the House or either House of the Legislature of a State,
      2. of all Acts passed by Parliament or the Legislature of a State and of all Ordinances promulgated by the President or the Governor of a State, and
      3. of all orders, rules, regulations and bye laws issued under this Constitution or under any law made by Parliament or the Legislature of a State, shall be in the English language
  2. Notwithstanding anything in sub clause (a) of clause ( 1 ), the Governor of a State may, with the previous consent of the President, authorise the use of the Hindi language, or any other language used for any official purposes of the State, in proceedings in the High Court having its principal seat in that State: Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to any judgment, decree or order passed or made by such High Court
  3. Notwithstanding anything in sub clause (b) of clause ( 1 ), where the Legislature of a State has prescribed any language other than the English language for use in Bills introduced in, or Acts passed by, the Legislature of the State or in Ordinances promulgated by the Governor of the State or in any order, rule, regulation or bye law referred to in paragraph (iii) of that sub clause, a translation of the same in the English language published under the authority of the Governor of the State in the Official Gazette of that State shall be deemed to be the authoritative text thereof in the English language under this article

Article 351- Directive for development of the Hindi languages.

It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages PART XVIII EMERGENCY PROVISIONS

Part 18 (Article 352-360) – Emergency Provisions

Article 352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency).

  1. If the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, whether by war or external aggression or armed rebellion, he may, by Proclamation, made a declaration to that effect in respect of the whole of India or of such part of the territory thereof as may be specified in the Proclamation Explanation A Proclamation of Emergency declaring that the security of India or any part of the territory thereof is threatened by war or by external aggression or by armed rebellion may be made before the actual occurrence of war or of any such aggression or rebellion, if the President is satisfied that there is imminent danger thereof
  2. A Proclamation issued under clause (I) may be or revoked by a subsequent proclamation
  3. The President shall not issue a Proclamation under clause (I) or a Proclamation varying such Proclamation unless the decision of the Union Cabinet (that is to say, the Council consisting of the Prime Minister and other Ministers of Cabinet rank under Article 75) that such a Proclamation may be issued has been communicated to him in writing
  4. Every Proclamation issued under this article shall be laid before each House of Parliament and shall, except where it is a Proclamation revoking a previous Proclamation, cease to operate at the expiration of one month unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament Provided that if any such Proclamation (not being a Proclamation revoking a previous Proclamation) is issued at a time when the House of the People has been dissolved, or place during the period of one month referred to in this clause, and if a resolution approving the Proclamation has been passed by the Council of States, but no resolution with respect to such Proclamation has been passed by the House of the People before the expiration of that period, the Proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the House of the People first sits after its reconstitution, unless before the expiration of the said period of thirty days a resolution approving the Proclamation has been also passed by the House of the People
  5. A Proclamation so approved shall, unless revoked, cease to operate on the expiration of a period of six months from the date of the passing of the second of the resolutions approving the proclamation under clause ( 4 ); Provided that if and so often as a resolution approving the continuance in force of such a Proclamation is passed by both Houses of Parliament the Proclamation shall, unless revoked, continue in force for a further period of six months from the date on which it would otherwise have ceased of operate under this clause Provided further that if the dissolution of the House of the People takes place during any such period of six months an a resolution approving the continuance in force of such Proclamation has been passed by the House of the People during the said period, the Proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the House of the People first sits after its reconstitution unless before the expiration of the said period of thirty days, a resolution approving the continuance in force of the proclamation has been also passed by the House of the People
  6. For the purpose of clause ( 4 ) and ( 5 ), a resolution may be passed by either House of Parliament only by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two thirds of the members of that House present and voting
  7. Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing clauses, the President shall revoke a Proclamation issued under clause (l) or a Proclamation varying such Proclamation if the House of the People passes a resolution disapproving, or, as the case may be, disapproving the continuance in force of, such Proclamation
  8. Where a notice in writing signed by not less than one tenth of the total number of members of the House of the People has been given of, their intention to move a resolution for disapproving, or, as the case may be, for disapproving the continuance in force of, a Proclamation issued under clause (l) or a Proclamation varying such Proclamation,
    1. to the Speaker, if the House is in session; or
    2. to the President, if the House is not in session, a special sitting of the House shall be held within fourteen days from the date on which such notice is received by the Speaker, or as the case may be, by the President, for the purpose of considering such resolution
  9. The power conferred on the President by this article shall include the power to issue different Proclamations on different grounds, being war or external aggression or armed rebellion or imminent danger of war or external aggression or armed rebellion, whether or not here is a Proclamation already issued by the President under clause (l) and such Proclamation is in operation

Article 356- Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in State (State Emergency or President’s Rule)

  1.  If the President, on receipt of report from the Governor of the State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with he provisions of this Constitution, the President may be Proclamation
    1. assume to himself all or any of the functions of the Government of the State and all or any of the powers vested in or exercisable by the Governor or any body or authority in the State other than the Legislature of the State;
    2. declare that the powers of the Legislature of the State shall be exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament;
    3. make such incidental and consequential provisions as appear to the president to be necessary or desirable for giving effect to the objects of the Proclamation, including provisions for suspending in whole or in part the operation of any provisions of this constitution relating to any body or authority in the State Provided that nothing in this clause shall authorise the President to assume to himself any of the powers vested in or exercisable by a High Court, or to suspend in whole or in part the operation of any provision of this Constitution relating to High Courts
  2. Any such Proclamation may be revoked or varied by a subsequent Proclamation
  3. Every Proclamation issued under this article except where it is a Proclamation revoking a previous Proclamation, cease to operate at the expiration of two months unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament Provided that if any such Proclamation (not being a Proclamation revoking a previous Proclamation) is issued at a time when the House of the People is dissolved or the dissolution of the House of the People takes place during the period of two months referred to in this clause, and if a resolution approving the Proclamation has been passed by the Council of States, but no resolution with respect to such Proclamation has been passed by the House of the People before the expiration of that period, the Proclamation Shall cease to operate at the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the House of the People first sits after its reconstitution unless before the expiration of the said period of thirty days a resolution approving the Proclamation has been also passed by the House of the People
  4. A Proclamation so approved shall, unless revoked, cease to operate on the expiration of a period of six months from the date of issue of the Proclamation: Provided that if and so often as a resolution approving the continuance in force of such a Proclamation is passed by both Houses of Parliament, the Proclamation shall, unless revoked, continue in force for a further period of six months from the date on which under this clause it would otherwise have ceased to operating, but no such Proclamation shall in any case remain in force for more than three years: Provided further that if the dissolution of the House of the People takes place during any such period of six months and a resolution approving the continuance in force of such Proclamation has been passed by the Council of States, but no resolution with respect to the continuance in force of such Proclamation has been passed by the House of the People during the said period, the Proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the House of the People first sits after its reconstitution unless before the expiration of the said period of thirty days a resolution approving the continuance in force of the Proclamation has been also passed by the House of the People
  5. Notwithstanding anything contained in clause ( 4 ), a resolution with respect to the continuance in force of a Proclamation approved under clause ( 3 ) for any period beyond the expiration of one year from the date of issue of such proclamation shall not be passed by either House of Parliament unless
    1. a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, in the whole of India or, as the case may be, in the whole or any part of the State, at the time of the passing of such resolution, and
    2. the Election Commission certifies that the continuance in force of the Proclamation approved under clause ( 3 ) during the period specified in such resolution is necessary on account of difficulties in holding general elections to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned: Provided that in the case of the Proclamation issued under clause ( 1 ) on the 6 th day of October, 1985 with respect to the State of Punjab, the reference in this clause to any period beyond the expiration of two years

Article 360- Provisions as to financial emergency

  1. If the President is satisfied that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, he may by a Proclamation make a declaration to that effect
  2. A Proclamation issued under clause ( 1 )
    1. may be revoked or varied by a subsequent Proclamation;
    2. shall be laid before each House of Parliament;
    3. shall cease to operate at the expiration of two months unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament: Provided that if any such Proclamation is issued at a time when the House of the People has been dissolved or the dissolution of the House of the People takes place during the period of two months referred to in sub clause (c), and if a resolution approving the Proclamation has been passed by the Council of States, but no resolution with respect to such Proclamation has been passed by the House of the People before the expiration of that period, the Proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiration of thirty days from the ate on which the House of the People first sits after its reconstitution, unless before the expiration of the said period of thirty days a resolution approving the Proclamation has been also passed by the House of the People
  3. During the period any such Proclamation as is mentioned in clause ( 1 ) is in operation, the executive authority of the Union shall extend to the giving of directions to any State to observe such canons of financial propriety as may be specified in the directions, and to the giving of such other directions as the President may deem necessary and adequate for the purpose
  4. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution
    1. any such direction may include
      1. a provision requiring the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving in connection with the affairs of a State;
      2. a provision requiring all Money Bills or other Bills to which the provisions of Article 207 apply to be reserved for the consideration of the President after they are passed by the Legislature of the State;
    2. it shall be competent for the President during the period any Proclamation issued under this article is in operation to issue directions for the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving in connection with the affairs of the Union including the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts PART XIX MISCELLANEOUS
Part 19 (Article 361-367) – Miscellaneous

Article 361- Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs

  1. The President, or the Governor or Rajpramukh of a State, shall not be answerable to any court for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done or purporting to be done by him in the exercise and performance of those powers and duties: Provided that the conduct of the President may be brought under review by any court, tribunal or body appointed or designated by either House of Parliament for the investigation of a charge under Article 61: Provided further that nothing in this clause shall be construed as restricting the right of any person to bring appropriate proceedings against the Governor of India or the Government of a State
  2. No criminal proceedings whatsoever shall be instituted or continued against the President, or the Governor of a State, in any court during his term of office
  3. No process for the arrest or imprisonment of the President, or the Governor of a State, shall issue from any court during his term of office
  4. any civil proceedings in which relief is claimed against the President, or the Governor of a State, shall be instituted during his term of office in any court in respect of any act done or purporting to be done by him in his personal capacity, whether before or after he entered upon his office as President, or as Governor of such State, until the expiration of two months next after notice in writing has been delivered to the President or Governor, as the case may be, or left at his office stating the nature of the proceedings, the cause of action therefor, the name, description and place of residence of the party by whom such proceedings are to be instituted and the relief which he claims
Part 20 (Article 368) – Amending the constitution

Article 368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.

Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor

  1. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament may in exercise of its constituent power amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision of this Constitution in accordance with the procedure laid down in this article
  2. An amendment of this Constitution may be initiated only by the introduction of a Bill for the purpose in either House of Parliament, and when the Bill is passed in each House by a majority of the total membership of that House present and voting, it shall be presented to the President who shall give his assent to the Bill and thereupon the Constitution shall stand amended in accordance with the terms of the Bill: Provided that if such amendment seeks to make any change in
    1. Article 54, Article 55, Article 73, Article 162 or Article 241, or
    2. Chapter IV of Part V, Chapter V of Part VI, or Chapter I of Part XI, or
    3. any of the Lists in the Seventh Schedule, or
    4. the representation of States in Parliament, or
    5. the provisions of this article, the amendment shall also require to be ratified by the Legislature of not less than one half of the States by resolution to that effect passed by those Legislatures before the Bill making provision for such amendment is presented to the President for assent
  3. Nothing in Article 13 shall apply to any amendment made under this article
  4. No amendment of this Constitution (including the provisions of Part III) made or purporting to have been made under this article whether before or after the commencement of Section 55 of the Constitution (Forty second Amendment) Act, 1976 shall be called in question in any court on any ground
  5. For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that there shall be no limitation whatever on the constituent power of Parliament to amend by way of addition, variation or repeal the provisions of this Constitution under this article PART XXI TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS
Part 21 (Article 369-372) – Temporary, transitional and special provisions

Article 370 – Special provision of J&K.

Article 371A –  Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland

Article 371-J: Special Status for Hyderabad-Karnataka region

Part 22 (Article 392-395) – Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals

Article 393 – Short title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India.

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